Classification and Placement of Soils and Fill Materials
In earthmoving operations, it is essential that the materials in use comply to the classification and placement criteria designated in the contract and are tested in compliance with the relevant clause of the British Standard BS 1377. An earthworks design is extremely important to a construction as all of the subsequent operations are based on the integrity of the placed materials and rely on the anticipated strength of the operation. The classification of fill material is primarily driven by the grading analysis (BS1377-2) and is normally dictated by the Specification for Highway Works Volume 1 Series 600. In this document all of the permissible fill classes are tabulated and required characteristics are ascribed to each. For all classes, a grading envelope is given along with a plasticity (BS1377-2) requirement in most cases and other attributes are detailed for materials of more specific use. These include electrical conductivity, shear strength, and Moisture condition Value (MCV) (BS1377-4) amongst many others.
The requirements for each classification are decided based on the use of the fill material and it is imperative that the parameters are met. For this reason, regular sampling and testing of placed earth is highly important and is generally, closely monitored on site for compliance.
Simtec is able to provide experienced staff to sample earthworks materials and carry out on-site tests such as MCV and in-situ density using the Nuclear Density Gauge or electromagnetic Soil Density Gauge the latter UKAS accredited to D7830/D7830M-14.
Plasticity Index – Atterberg Limits
The soil characteristics that most affect the behaviour of placed earthworks material are the Atterberg limits which consist of a plastic limit, a liquid limit and the calculated plasticity index. Some materials are not going to perform adequately in certain situations and therefore it is imperative to classify the soil before use. Since • content the density can be calculated and again, as in the SRD method compared to the maximum dry density for the material under test.
Strength and Loading Characteristics
Compacted soils and unbound aggregates placed for specific usage are tested in-situ by various physical methods. Crane platforms and piling rig locations are often tested using the plate loading test or the lightweight deflectometer (LWD).
For cohesive materials, either as present in undisturbed ground or placed and compacted as part of an engineering project the hand shear vane can be used to gain stiffness information. Although only used at the surface, for a consistent layer of soil it gives a reliable assessment. Simtec tests to the New Zealand Geotechnical Society Inc August 2001 specification and holds a UKAS accreditation for the operation. The DCP, as described below, can also be used to evaluate the stiffness of lower layers using a dynamic method.
Plate Loading Testing
The plate loading test developed by the US Corp of Engineers can be used to assess the in-situ strength of naturally occurring ground for structural purposes or to test the integrity of placed layers of material for compliance purposes.
The first of these tests is generally referred to as the “Plate Loading Test” where a fixed load is applied to a thick steel plate by means of a hydraulic jack and the reaction is monitored over time using digital or rotary gauges. The load applied is normally determined by the anticipated loading the ground is to be subjected to, as in a crane placement, a bridge or building construction etc. Deflection and permanent deformation can be measured very accurately using this method.
In the second application, usually identified as the “Plate Bearing Test” a steadily increasing load is applied to the plate in stages and the reaction of the material beneath the plate to this increasing load is measured. This modulus of reaction can be used to calculate the “California Bearing Ratio” (CBR) value, often a requirement of construction contracts and is normally carried out to BS1377-9.
The depth to which the load is applied in either case is a function of the plate area. The ground is stressed to approximately one and a half times the plate diameter and the plates used in testing generally range in diameter from 100mm to 600mm making the test able to assess ground depths from 150mm to 900mm.
This assessment method has been in use successfully since the 1930s and remains a “stock” test in highways and construction monitoring.
Typical Plate Bearing Test
The graphical output from this test shows the ground settlement under stress. The second load shows whether further compaction has resulted from the first loading, a ratio between the two reactions can be used to assess whether more rolling is required.
The plate bearing test can also be used to assess existing ground conditions during geotechnical investigations. In this way structural design for a project can be fine tuned to take into account the kind of formation that will be encountered during construction.
Stiffness Measurement with the Lightweight Deflectometer (LWD)
The “Portable Falling Weight Deflectometer” or “Lightweight Deflectometer” as it is also known (LWD for short) is a rapid assessment tool for carriageway layers, both existing and newly placed. For pavement design it is necessary to know the stiffness of the foundation platform and this can be quickly achieved by use of the deflectometer. Giving a direct readout in Megapascals (MPa) this equipment is an invaluable tool for pavement engineering.
The portable apparatus consists of a weight which is dropped a fixed distance down a rod onto an anvil attached to a thick plate. The underlying material’s dynamic reaction to this drop is measured by means of a geophone, Bluetooth connected to a computer.
A test is carried out at the desired location by placing the machine over the location and releasing the weight by means of a trigger. This process is repeated several times and the computer, having collected the geophone data calculates an average value for the stiffness of the material beneath the plate. The process takes only a few minutes at each location and so a large area can be assessed in a short space of time.
This equipment is now accepted by Highways England and appears in the Specification for Highway Works as a tool for the evaluation of highway foundation platforms. The same process can be carried out on existing pavements to gain stiffness information when designing maintenance strategies.
Since the development of a generally accepted conversion equation some Authorities have now adopted this test to replace the Plate Bearing Test to assess sub base compaction in highway construction and repair works. The stiffness values can readily be converted into estimated CBR values. Although measuring in two different ways, a more precise correlation is possible between the Plate Bearing Test and the Lightweight Deflectometer for most commonly used road materials. This enables continuous monitoring of such works as pavement stabilisation, cement bound road bases and recycled road materials such as “Foambase” and cement bound recycled material. The more sophisticated type of LWD has a range up to 7000mPa and can therefore be used to evaluate whole pavements in site investigation routines.
Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Investigation
It is possible in both site investigation and multi layered placement operations to evaluate strata using a mechanical ground penetrating system known as the Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP). This apparatus, developed for site investigation in undeveloped areas by the Transport Research Laboratory, is able to return data from subsequent layers by driving a rod and cone device vertically into the soil in a location. Simtec works to an in-house method, TPSM022, based on SHW IAN 73/06. The equipment consists of a steel cone mounted on a set of detachable rods which are driven into the ground by an in-line mounted drop hammer. This method enables stiffness values to be gained from a considerable depth. Software has been developed to convert the cone resistance to a CBR value and present it in graphical format. This can be invaluable for pavement design, foundation design and for compaction assessment.
Earthworks & Soils stabilisation Testing
Soil stabilisation consist of adding binders in-situ to improve the soil performance. This method is proven to be both cost effective and sustainable. The benefits include: reduced material importing and off-site disposal, reduced costs and reduced vehicle movement.
Soil improvement and soil stabilisation can be used for fills, foundations, subgrade improvement, slope repairs, working platforms and hardstanding’s.
At Simtec we offer an unrivalled service with decades of experience to effectively manage and facilitate all of our clients soils testing requirements – from classification testing to large scale soil stabilisation projects.
Post-stabilisation testing is also carried out to ensure the finished material meets design and compliance requirements.
Soil Stabilisation Services from Simtec:
- Ground Investigation & Procurement – Desk studies, review available data and assess the potential of stabilisation, take representative samples from trial pits for laboratory analysis, establish if detrimental levels of sulphates are present through sulphate testing suites
- Laboratory Trials – laboratory trial should be conducted prior to any full-scale field trials or laying of the material is carried out. We carry out a range of tests to assess host soil properties and offer improvement to stabilised materials following addition of appropriate binders.
- Site Quality Control Testing – On-site quality monitoring and control testing carried out by a skilled and dedicated Simtec Site Technician including: pulverisation, MCV, in-situ CBR tests, Plate Bearing tests, in-situ density/moisture. We will also monitor the binder addition rate and take samples during site treatment for strength testing such as accelerated triaxial and soaked CBRs.
Range of soils and earthworks classification testing carried out:
Contamination & Environmental Compliance Testing and Analysis Service:
Using our network of specialist UKAS accredited laboratories, Simtec can offer a comprehensive range of contamination and environmental compliance testing, giving our clients a complete solution for all of their environmental testing requirements.
We provide a full range of contamination testing suites accredited to UKAS and MCERTs for soils, waters and gases through our approved external laboratories.
This service can offer factual results only, but also advice and interpretation using a network of experienced and professional geo-environmental engineers and scientists.
- pH Value – BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
- Organic Matter – BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
- Water Soluble Sulphate Content – Gravimetric Method – BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
- Water Soluble Sulphate Content – Analysis by ICP based on BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
- Acid (total) Soluble Sulphate Content – Gravimetric Method – BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
- Acid (total) Soluble Sulphate Content – Analysis by ICP based on BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
- Water Soluble Sulphur – TRL 447 Test No 1
- Acid Soluble Sulphur – TRL 447 Test No 2
- Total Sulphur – TRL 447 Test No 4
- Water Soluble Chloride – BS EN 1744-1, clause 7
- Water Soluble Sulphate – BS EN 1744-1, clause 10
- Total Sulphur – BS EN 1744-1, clause 11
- Acid Soluble Sulphates – BS EN 1744-1, clause 12
- Acid Soluble Sulphides – BS EN 1744-1, clause 13
- Loss on Ignition – BS 1377: Part 3: 1990
- Loss on Ignition – BS EN 1744-1
- WAC (Waste Acceptance Criteria) testing / EWC Classification
- Asbestos ID testing (including quantification)
Frequently Asked Questions
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Our other range of services
- Airports and Associated Works
- Industrial Development